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It’s not an easy thing to figure out those fstops… Assuming everything else is the same a higher fstop will mean more depth of field (more stuff is in focus) a lower fstop will mean less is in focus. For landscape photos like this one the ideal situation is to shoot at the highest fstop you can. Just be aware that a higher stop usually means you need a longer shutter so if there is movement you need to think abou that…
Yes the settings tungsten, fluorescent, daylight is the white balance setting. Just match the setting to what you are shooting in. So if you’re shooting in daylight set it to daylight. If you’re under fluorescent light set to fluorescent…. What that does is it sets the color temperature to a preset that roughly matches the color temperature of the light in those environments… The 500k thing is for when you want to set your white balance to an exact color temperature. For example you’re shooting a sports event and you know the exact color temperature of the lighting being used… That’s pretty advanced so I wouldn’t get into that now.
If all your photos are yellow it probably means you have adjusted the 500k setting somehow. You will want to reset the camera to factory settings if that’s the case.
Try to play with the white balance setting.
Go outside and put the camera on a tripod and take one photo on each setting. You will see how dramatically this setting impacts the color on your photographs.