Selective focus involves focusing on a specific subject or area within the frame while leaving the remainder out of focus. This technique is used to draw attention to the subject and is achieved by using a wide aperture to create a shallow depth of field. This is especially popular in macro photography, portraits, and whenever the photographer wants to emphasize a subject against a busy background.
Basics of Selective Focus
- Aperture Setting: The technique largely relies on a wide aperture setting (e.g., f/1.8, f/2.8) to create a shallow depth of field, which blurs out elements that are not within the focused plane.
- Depth of Field: This is the area of the image that appears sharp. A shallow depth of field means only a small portion of the image will be in focus.
Types of Photography Where It's Used
- Macro Photography: When photographing small subjects like insects or flowers, selective focus can isolate the subject against a blurry background, highlighting intricate details.
- Portraits: It's common to use selective focus in portrait photography to make the subject stand out and eliminate distractions from the background.
- Busy Backgrounds: In settings where the background is complex or cluttered, selective focus helps to reduce distraction and highlight the subject.
- Manual Focus: Using manual focus gives you more precise control over the exact point of focus, which can be crucial in achieving the perfect selective focus.
- Distance: The technique is also affected by the distance between the camera, the subject, and the background. A greater distance between the subject and the background can enhance the blurring effect.
Gear and Settings
- Prime Lenses: A prime lens with a wide maximum aperture can be particularly effective for selective focus.
- ISO and Shutter Speed: When using a wide aperture, it's often necessary to adjust the ISO and shutter speed to properly expose the image.
- AI and Computational Photography: Many modern smartphones now use software to mimic selective focus, sometimes referred to as "Portrait Mode" or "Bokeh Effect." While handy, these often can't fully replicate the quality achievable with traditional camera setups.
- Storytelling: Selective focus can be a powerful storytelling tool, directing the viewer's attention to what you deem most important in the frame.
- Artistic Flair: Beyond the technical aspects, there's an art to mastering selective focus. It allows for creativity in deciding which elements to emphasize and which to allow to fall into the background.
Understanding selective focus can open new avenues for creative and impactful photography.